The effects of climate change can have consequences far beyond the affected region. The main reason for this is the interaction between different processes in society and ecosystems, and the fact that these are transnational, in part as a result of international trade.
In one research report, the focus is placed on a selection of areas in which the indirect effects of climate change are deemed to be of significance to Sweden. These areas are: Foreign, security, defence and development policy; migration; agriculture, forestry and fisheries; transport and energy; and trade, enterprise and industry.
A starting point from which to analyse the consequences of climate change for an individual sector, local community, country or region necessitates taking into account the effects of climate change, as well as what capability there is to resist this change and develop the capacity to adapt. This implies that the consequences of climate change are dependent on both climatological and non-climatological factors.
Accordingly, assessing the consequences of climate change necessitates taking into account the complex interaction between different factors. Quite simply, one single event can have essentially different consequences depending on which society is affected and what that society's vulnerabilities are. A society's vulnerabilities also change over time.
It is important to include the interaction between climatological and non-climatological factors in an analysis of the effects of climate change on an individual country, or an individual sector, and these interactions are transnational to a varying extent. It is therefore important for a country such as Sweden that is extensively internationalised to be attentive to how changes in the rest of the world can have an impact at home. The impact of climate change on the flows of trade, economic development and migration are thus some areas that are relevant to study.