Erosion is the effect caused by the wearing down of the landscape by running water, waves, wind and ice. In Sweden, it is mainly water erosion that is of significance to built-up areas.
Erosion along the banks of lakes and watercourses
Increased precipitation and runoff in parts of the country is contributing to high flow rates, which has its greatest erosive impact along the banks of lakes and watercourses. Areas that will receive increased flow rates and thus greater erosion are in the western parts of the country and areas in central and northern Sweden. This affects the countryside as well as built-up areas.
Erosion in watercourses entails more sediment being transported, which can create problems when the sediment is deposited downstream. Natural disasters caused by landslides are also often triggered by erosion.
Coastal erosion is affected chiefly by the geological conditions, the sea level, the wave climate, the wind conditions and the currents.
As an effect of higher sea levels, coastal erosion will increase along the country's coast, primarily in southern Sweden. This brings with it a risk of harmful consequences in terms of coastal settlements and infrastructure.
It is primarily along sandy coasts that erosion will increase. Frequent sand erosion takes place, for example, along the coast of Skåne, where the coastline has moved over 150 m inland over the last 30 years in some places.
Climate scenarios indicate that sea levels will rise and thus reach previously unaffected coastlines. Stronger winds can contribute to increased wave height, which provides even greater erosive power. Higher waves combined with an increased sea level can lead to local erosive impact on vulnerable stretches of coast.