Waterfront buildings and areas that are already often exposed to floods are especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change. This applies both along lakes and rivers as well in coastal areas. Problems related to flooding may increase as precipitation is expected to become more intense and frequent in the future.
Changes in groundwater levels and pore pressure conditions influence the risk of landslides. Changes in groundwater conditions and the pore pressure may also lead to consequences for the ground chemistry. The risk of coastal erosion is related to changes of the sea level.
Housing areas are also affected more directly, for example, by changed snow and wind loads. A warmer and damper climate increases the risk of problems with humidity and mold. The heating demand decreases, while the need for cooling increases.
Historically valuable buildings are often particularly vulnerable to climate change as they are often old and located in sensitive areas.
In coastal areas there are a large number of environments and older cities of great cultural value. These areas and settlements will be affected by factors such as rising sea levels.